The cost of 3THERMO wall heating is comparable to the cost of underfloor heating systems. The higher unit price of the radiator (the catalogue price without discounts is PLN 250) is offset by the higher power output of the device (a single radiator is capable of heating an area of up to 5 square metres in traditional buildings).
For example, to heat an area of 20 square metres (in a new building, with a heat demand of 50 W/m2), you need 4–5 3THERMO units. Older buildings with a higher heat demand (poor thermal insulation) may need more radiators, which rules out underfloor heating as a viable option (because its output is limited to 50 W and the floor area).
Replacing a regular wall-mounted radiator with 3THERMO surface heating system is extremely easy. First of all, you do not have to destroy the floor. All you need to do is apply an additional layer of plaster or take a few square metres of plaster off the wall. Secondly, you use the existing radiator supply line line. Ultimately, you get an energy-efficient electronically-controlled heating system. The cost of complete equipment – together with the control system – for a room with an area of up to 20 square metres never exceeds PLN 2,000.
Regular wall-mounted radiators are high-temperature receivers that heat the room by heating the air. Since they operate in this way, the greatest thermal potential (the highest energy) accumulates under the ceiling, where it is a pure waste of energy.
Of course, 3THERMO radiators also heat the air, but not with such intensity (not with such a high difference in potentials), so there is no warm layer under the ceiling. In fact, they work more like low-temperature (large-size) radiators, but they have a number of key advantages. Firstly, they are invisible. Secondly, they transfer heat immediately into the structure of the outer wall (offsetting heat losses directly on the partition) and not into the air, which reduces losses to the ventilation.
It is a type of surface heating which is installed on the most suitable surface – the outer partition. Heating systems should be installed in locations with the largest heat losses to balance them out. That is why radiators are mounted under the windows. The floor definitely is not the partition where the greatest losses are generated. Such partitions are, for example, the outer walls and flat roofs. A wall heating system makes up for heat losses (balances them out) precisely where they arise. So your room is not heated with excess energy, but with the exact amount of energy required at a given time.
Another important aspect to consider is health. Overheated air and wall-mounted radiators or air blower heaters are breeding grounds for bacteria, and convection (or movement) of air causes them to spread around the house. What is more, warm and humid air releases its moisture into cold walls. As a result, your skin gets dry, but the the walls are damp and promote the growth of mould. With wall heating, an opposite phenomenon occurs. The warm wall gives off its heat to a cooler room, drying the partition in the process. In simple terms, wall heating enhances the natural properties of the outer partition as a moisture buffer in your home.
Indeed, wall heating is so different from what we are accustomed to that it is difficult to compare it to anything. All other systems supply heating "outwardly from the source". You can get the most similar experience at the end of summer, when the sun heats the walls, and the nights already get chilly. As a result, the walls – which are slightly warmer than the air – provide us with extra heat at night. With wall heating, you experience no thermal sensation. Everything that is necessary to balance out a low outside temperature takes place EXCLUSIVELY on the partition, away from you.
Thermal comfort is when the ambient temperature (our environment) is constant and evenly distributed. A flow of warm air produces a pleasant sensation only if you feel cold (you lack heat). The same applies to the warm floor. The experience of putting bare feet on a warm floor is nice only when you feel thermal discomfort. If you feel warm, you do not get any pleasure from touching warm surfaces, as they interfere with your thermal balance. Air at the temperature of 20°C does not heat you up. Quite the opposite, it cools you down! People can be compared to engines. They generate heat in the (internal) combustion process, and must release any excess heat to the environment. And similarly to the car engine (designed to maintain a constant temperature of 80-90°C), the human body maintains its temperature for optimal functioning at about 36°C.
To sum up, heat does not need to blow or radiate on you (you feel thermal radiation when a heat-radiating body – for example a radiator or a masonry heater – has a higher temperature that your body). It is perfectly enough to ensure that the temperature around you has a constant temperature of 20°C. Heat is energy that is constantly transferred from one object to another. A warmer object cools down by transferring its heat to a cooler object. As a result, the air heated inside the house cools down on the outer partitions. The greatest heat losses occur in thermal bridges. Nothing can be done about it, which is why we use heating in our homes.
3THERMO is a system providing DIRECT heating. It was not originally our idea. Quite a long time back, in the 1970s, when it became apparent that surface heating is more effective, it was quite clear that the right place for a surface heating system was the outer wall. Unfortunately, at that time, all attempts to heat the outer wall efficiently were unsuccessful (excessive heat losses due to excessive resistance to heat transfer into the interior). Consequently, the industry went for a solution that was easier to implement (though not better) – underfloor heating. And before that, the ceiling was the target. In the 1970s-90s, buildings had terrible thermal insulation. To provide sufficient thermal power to offset it, the temperature of the floor would reach 50°C! That is why so much energy was supplied to the ceiling – an area that no one touches. The ceiling, however, wastes energy just like radiators, by supplying heat to an area where there are no people. What is more, high-temperature radiation (note that the ceiling is also an inner partition) coming from such a large surface is both unpleasant and unhealthy. What was impossible to do 40 years ago is achievable today because hydraulic restrictions can by bypassed by transferring heat via a radiator. Consequently, the overage and resistance are reduced to a minimum.
The structure of the radiator separates the hydraulic system from the radiator. Water is not involved in heat transport under the plaster. Damage to the wall (and also to the radiator) does not lead to a hydraulic failure of the central heating system. Other radiators are in working order, and there is no water leakage. The ratio of the surface area of the hydraulic system to the surface area of the heating component does not exceed 2%, so the risk of failure is, in fact, minimal.
Placing 3THERMO radiators in the "slants" at the flat roof is not the same as ceiling heating. A slanted ceiling is a specific type of partition combining wall and ceiling characteristics. The best surface is always the outer wall! Heating is installed in slanted ceilings in the attic ONLY if there are no walls suitable for this purpose elsewhere. The ratio of short knee walls is sometimes insufficient. In such cases, the only solution is to use the remaining surfaces, such as the floor or the "slants" in the ceiling.
Regardless of the type of heat emission, be it the movement of warm air (blowers, heaters, convection heater) or thermal radiation (masonry heaters, fireplaces, radiators, underfloor heating systems), heat gets out through the partitions separating us from the cold (outer walls, flat roof) anyway.
It does not really matter whether heat is generated in the plaster layer or in the radiator 2 cm away from the wall. One way or the other, it is generated precisely to be lost on the outer partition. However, the heat which is generated in the wall (concealed radiators) does not escape with the air to the ventilation, but is absorbed by the partition. When the air is heated, part of its thermal energy is also absorbed by the outer partitions, but unfortunately the remaining (unused) energy escapes into the ventilation system or forms a layer of heat under the ceiling. This is just pure loss.
The outer partitions are not insulated to aid the heating system, but to reduce heat losses. This question is commonly asked, but it results from the misunderstanding of the purpose of insulation for the underfloor system. Let me clarify that the ground floor insulation in buildings is unrelated to whether you want underfloor heating or not. This is an independent thing aimed at improving the thermal insulation of the entire building. If you opt for wall heating, the floor must be insulated anyway. And if you choose underfloor heating, the walls and the flat roof still need insulation.
- 9. If concealed radiators are really so good, why are you the only manufacturer offering this solution?
Somebody must be first. It is likely that the idea will catch on, and soon we will hear about other concealed radiator designs. It is probably just a matter of time and the possibility of patent protection. The market is very big, so I expect we might not be the only manufacturer for long
The radiator is made entirely of aluminium alloy. Even a relatively aggressive alkaline environment in the cement mortar does not have a destructive effect on the aluminium alloy. The radiator itself has no moving parts. As long as it is manufactured properly, without defects, it will probably last forever.
The easiest way to understand this is as follows. A concealed radiator can be likened to a single rib in a regular type of radiator. Such ribs are also connected IN A SERIES. Only the entire radiator is connected to the central heating system in a parallel circuit. Concealed heaters connected in series make up ONE large concealed radiator. In contrast to regular radiators which are placed in spot locations under the windows, 3THERMO is stretched over a larger area of the wall.
The design of your set of concealed radiators (ribs) depends on the output you want to get from one connected system. And just like with other heating devices, the crucial thing is to design and provide an appropriate heat distribution system to achieve the required heating output.
The number of 3THERMO radiators to be connected in series depends on the capacity of the system (the flow rate). For example: if you plan to replace your regular radiator with an output of 1.5 kW, you can connect a system of 6 3THERMO radiators, which is the exact equivalent of the above heating power, to the same supply line.
The selection card for the concealed radiator is available in the Downloads tab. The power output of the radiator depends on the supply temperature, flow rate, and heating resistance of the mass in which the radiator is installed.
On account of their wide operating range radiators can be selected in low-temperature and high-temperature variants (max. 60°C in accordance with current EU restrictions).
The rule of thumb is that a single radiator installed in a new building provides heating to a usable area of 5 square metres.
- 13. The maximum temperature specified in the selection card is 60°C. Why is it the highest temperature available?
We have not done any tests for higher central heating temperatures, as EU countries are now moving away from high-temperature heating systems. This is mainly due to combustion-based energy sources, and possibilities for increasing the efficiency of secondary heat recovery systems. Also, when designing a heating system, the focus should be on making it as comfortable as possible, which requires a uniform distribution of temperatures.
Surface heating is not about heating any wall to a very high temperature, but about balancing out heat losses on the outer walls and windows. Of course, transferring a higher temperature to the radiator (80°C) would reduce the time necessary for heating the room, but our design is limited to the temperature of 60°C.
As there are no other restrictions, we do not need any limits for the heating parameter, unlike in standard underfloor heating. If the heating parameters delivered by your heat source (for example, the municipal heating plant) are higher than our design specifications, the electronic room temperature control system decreases the time of energy consumption, and either reduces or completely closes the flow of water in the circuit. 3THERMO is the only heating system operating at full efficiency regardless of the temperature of the heating medium from the central heating system.
Both types of heating belong to the family of surface heating systems and, as such, they have an advantage over convection heating systems by offering the potential to achieve energy savings. However, wall heating systems have the added advantage of balancing out heat losses precisely where they occur – and it is common knowledge that the greatest heat losses are through the outer walls, not the floor. As a result, wall heating (rather than underfloor heating) has the most even temperature distribution. In underfloor heating systems, the general rule is "the farther from the outer wall, the warmer". To take due account of this effect, a well-designed underfloor heating system must have more pipes fitted along the outer walls. However, the amount of energy must offset the heat losses to the outer partition and ensure users' thermal comfort. Wall heating is a type of surface heating but without thermal inertia which is the biggest disadvantage of underfloor heating systems. Wall heating is the only type of heating which offsets energy losses with such precision. Underfloor heating systems always heat up buildings with excess heat, which automatically leads to higher thermal losses.
What is more, based on Koenig's diagram and the relationship it shows, the temperature of the air can be reduced without losing thermal comfort. The correlation is limited only to the surface of the walls, and not the floor, and it arises because there is no need to supply extra energy to eliminate thermal discomfort caused by contact with a cold partition.
The human body – similarly to any other body with (thermal) energy – gives it off to another body with a lower (thermal) potential, or to the environment. To counteract this effect, the warm body must be supplied with heat (via convection), so that there is no discomfort due to the loss of energy to the colder wall. Wall heating eliminates this process, and hence saves energy that would otherwise be lost.
That depends on the intended purpose. It is similar to asking: is a pick-up truck better than a sports car? If you take into consideration economic, environmental and health-related aspects, there is no better system than 3THERMO wall heating. Unfortunately, it is not suitable for all applications. For example, it is unsuitable for heating circus tents, where a blowing system works best. Similarly, it is not the right solution for glazed office buildings, where the number of walls is minimal. 3THERMO surface heating has been designed with a new approach to the problem of reducing energy consumption. It supplies thermal energy with unrivalled precision. In contrast to ALL other systems, 3THERMO does not provide heating based on excess energy. Every system is controlled, but not every system is controllable.
Regardless of what your gut tells you, mounting radiators in the outer wall DOES NOT INCREASE the consumption of thermal energy. In fact, exactly the opposite happens, and the energy consumption drops. Even in an uninsulated old building, 3THERMO will reduce energy consumption by 40–50% compared to heating with a regular wall-mounted radiator. How? Because savings will be generated by maintaining a uniform temperature throughout the rooms (for example, 21°C). In contrast, when regular radiators are used, the layer with the highest temperature (for example 26–27°C) is near the ceiling, generating losses.
You need to note that heating is a NECESSITY, and heat losses occur in the outer partitions. An efficient heating system should make up for these losses without generating other losses. 3THERMO is the most precise system out there. It supplies energy exactly where it is needed.
Coming back to the question, insulating the wall from the inside will deprive the wall of its natural moisture buffering capacity, which will have a direct effect on the deterioration of the microclimate. For the same reason, people prefer to live in buildings made of natural materials (concrete, stone, bricks, wood), having appropriate moisture capacity, rather than in plastic-based structures.
A well-designed and properly installed 3THERMO wall heating system has basically no flaws. Our design (based on radiators) has eliminated all the disadvantages of previous generations of wall heating.
With 3THERMO, you may select any temperature you like. Neither 3THERMO, nor any wall heating system has any limitations in this respect. However, since completely different phenomena are at play here, and wall heating operates differently from convection heating systems you are accustomed to, the air temperature in the room can be brought down without any detriment to comfort and health. This is possible because the heat loss is compensated precisely where it arises – in the outer wall. For this reason, we do not need to overheat the system to balance out temperature differences. This is a very important point to consider for reasons of health and cost-efficiency. Firstly, it is healthier to breathe cooler air, with natural humidity, which is also purer, as it contains no dust or allergens. Secondly, it is easier on the wallet when the temperature does not need to be increased so much. Even a small drop in temperature, by just 1°C, translates into a reduction of energy consumption by about 5–7% (depending on the degree of thermal transmittance of the partition).
Having a professional design makes is easier to assign liability, if need be. So, if you want someone to be held liable, for example if your heating system is poorly designed, you should purchase a discipline-specific design for your central heating system. In private building projects (such as single-family detached homes), it is indeed uncommon to have a detailed technical design for a central heating system.
If regular radiators are selected by the plumber based on his "guesstimate, it does not matter so much. However, in the case of underfloor heating systems even minor inaccuracies may have major consequences. Underfloor heating systems have varying thickness and heating pipe spacing. This is one thing. However, it is more important to determine the balance of heat losses for individual rooms in the building. If this is not selected properly, the only thing that can be done is to increase the supply temperature, which in underfloor heating systems is limited to 35°C, for health-related reasons.
Wall heating systems – including 3THERMO – do not have such limitations. However, making up for a poorly designed system by setting higher temperatures will result in higher operating costs.
What matters is not the temperature of the wall, but the temperature of the environment inside your home. Wall heating is not about heating the wall. What you want to achieve is the desirable constant air temperature. A warm wall is an effect, not a goal.
As long as the system is well-designed and operates properly, the temperature of the wall is maintained steadily at the maximum level of 25°C regardless of the external factors (temperatures outside). As the outside temperature drops, the heat demand and hence the capacity of the system increase, but the temperature of the wall itself does not rise.
Also, you cannot really compare this system with underfloor heating, because the floor, unlike the wall, is not an outer partition. This means that the temperatures of the wall surface will always be lower than the temperatures of the floor surface, even with the same supply of heating power. The wall is superior to the floor in that it offers an opportunity to MAKE UP for heat losses quickly and directly on the partition, which helps to reduce energy consumption. No "excess" heat is generated for later use. Instead, heat is produced and supplied on an ongoing basis, as needed. No more, and no less.
In contrast to water-based heating systems with PVC pipes, concealed heaters do not generate high stresses. Consequently, they do not require thick or special-purpose plasters with increased flexibility. Any standard type of plaster can be used. 3THERMO radiators are even suitable for installation in the adhesive layer in front of ceramic tiles, for example in bathrooms.
Operating costs always depend on the heat demand of the building, that is its thermal insulation. However, you can safely assume that the operating costs of a surface heating system are always much lower than the costs of convection heating systems (blow heaters, high-temperature heating solutions) regardless of the energy consumption of the building. This is mainly due to the principle of operation of surface heating systems which provide heat at reduced losses to the ventilation and in a state of greater thermal equilibrium, without forming layers of warm air under the ceiling.
Compared to convection heating, with 3THERMO you can achieve savings of 40 to 50%. Compared to underfloor heating, the savings are due to much lower inertia (profit on better control), but 3THERMO is definitely healthier, creating a better microclimate, and very comfortable.
There are no limitations. The only precondition is that you need space for mounting the 170cm x 60cm module. Also, you should follow the general rule which states that radiators must be installed where the highest heat losses are. However, if there is not enough free space on the outer walls, we complement the system by placing radiators on the inner walls as close as possible to the windows and thermal bridges. Installation on an outer wall ensures superior thermal comfort combined with the lowest energy consumption.
The easiest way to explain this is as follows. People are like stoves which maintain a constant temperature of approximately 36.6°C. The ideal ambient temperature is 20°C. If you stand in front of a large cold partition (a wall), for example with a temperature of 16°C, the air cools down on the wall. The resulting drop in the ambient temperature also makes you lose heat. To prevent this, the air temperature must be higher than ideal to compensate for heat losses to the cold partition, as they arise.
When the opposite happens, that is when the temperature of the wall is equal to or slightly higher than the temperature of the air, it cannot cool it down. It is then possible to maintain the air temperature a constant ideal level of 20°C. Eliminating this phenomenon results in savings from the so-called chimney losses, and provides a huge added value by improving our health and well-being. We feel much better when we are able to breathe cooler and naturally humid air than dry air. In addition, you eliminate the movement of dust, allergens, dust mites, etc.
Concealed radiators are compatible with any type of central heating source. The system works equally well with a combustion furnace (gas-fired and coal-fired types), a heat pump, or a standard electric furnace.
The main advantage is exceptional thermal comfort combined with a favourable microclimate in your house. Users of 3THERMO systems do not experience any effects of balancing out heat losses, as they take place EXCLUSIVELY on the partition. You do not feel heat radiating towards you. You do not need to walk on the warm floor to feel comfortable. Instead, you are simply surrounded by a perfect constant temperature. Another key aspect to consider is humidity. The wall system is the only type of heating that does not dry the air, because water vapour is not transferred to the outer partition together with heat. With wall heating, the heat that is emitted from the wall has an additional drying effect, while increasing the humidity of the air we breathe. This solution improves the natural capacity of the wall as a buffer and humidity controller in your home. What is more, you will never again face the problem of damp walls or mould. When it comes to energy efficiency, both systems are similar, but if there are large temperature jumps outside, 3THERMO performs better than underfloor heating because it responds faster (it is more easily controlled). 3THERMO is a very precise system which provides heating using a specific minimum amount of energy, unlike all other heating systems which are based on excess energy.
3THERMO is also a superior choice if you think about upgrading your old heating system (radiators) and replacing it with a modern energy-saving solution. Installing underfloor heating is very expensive. You must destroy the entire floor, provide a new supply line, and so on. With 3THERMO, all that needs to be done is to hang concealed radiators on the wall, connect the system to the old supply line (after removing the old wall-mounted radiator) and cover the area with a new thin layer of plaster. No need to tamper with the floor! Heating has never been so simple.
3THERMO can be used, for example, in old residential buildings, historic buildings, houses from the 1990s, where underfloor heating would not make up for heat losses due to excessive heat demand, since the heating output of underfloor systems is limited.
The radiator weighs less than 1.5 kg. The clips – or mounting brackets – are used only for hanging the radiator on the wall before plastering. After applying plaster on the wall, the radiator will bind to it and form an additional element of the plaster structure. The mesh used for mounting is modelled on the Rabitz wire mesh which has been used in the construction industry for years
We sell our products via fitting stores listed on our website or directly through Certified Fitters. We are also available throughout the entire SBS Group chain. If you have any questions or problems, you may also contact the manufacturer's account managers.
We offer a 20-year warranty for a designed 3THERMO system. The warranty is valid on the condition that the system is installed by a Certified Fitter.
3THERMO concealed radiators are a water-based system supplied from the central heating system, but the source of heat can be an electric unit. 3THERMO stands out with its extremely small total volume of water in the system. In combination with an electric boiler, it produces a highly efficient system. Consequently, 3THERMO is a perfect solution for apartments located in old buildings which need to switch from a masonry heater to another heating system. The heating bill will be approximately 50% lower than when using heating based on electric heaters, and the operation will be far more comfortable for the users than – for example – electric radiators.
The system itself does not require a chimney (unlike flue gas boilers), and despite being just as convenient, it is considerably cheaper.
No streaks will ever appear on the wall! The wall can be repainted when the paint fades or if you get bored with the colour, but never because of any stains caused by 3THERMO radiators!
Streaks on the walls appear only when electrical systems are used. When the electric current flows through the heating duct, it generates an electromagnetic field which attracts electric charges and, with them, dust. This phenomenon does not occur in 3THERMO radiators because they do not have electrical resistance cables.
What is more, 3THERMO does not produce electrostatic phenomena that might arise in other water-based systems with high flow rates.
In fact, the walls with regular radiators need to be repainted more often. The constant movement of the air – coupled with the inherent tendency for radiators to attract dust – results in grey streaks that appear above the radiators.
3THERMO concealed radiators can be supplied with water at a maximum temperature of 100°C. However, concealed radiators are surface heating systems, so there is absolutely no reason to operate them at such high temperatures, unless you want to achieve the "masonry heater effect" on the wall. Setting the parameter so high would cause considerable energy losses and uneven distribution of temperatures. Such a system would not be convenient to operate and, most likely, it would be cost-inefficient. We do not know the heating power for 100°C. We have never commissioned, and we will probably never commission, any tests in this area.
The optimum maximum temperature limit in our system is 60°C. At this temperature value, the number of radiators is minimal, which reduces the investment cost of the 3THERMO system.
Plaster cracking in wall systems was largely caused by the application of water-based solutions. This was caused firstly by thick layers of plaster (3–5 cm) needed to conceal water pipes, and secondly by polymer expansion under the influence of temperature. Polymer hoses used in the wall heating systems had a very high linear expansion coefficient and, as a result, produced internal stresses in the plaster. Some plaster manufacturers were against temperature limits that were meant to prevent cracking. Others, for example Knauf, launched special-purpose plasters (MP75 G/F Thermo) with an addition of perlite and other substances to make the material more flexible. 3THERMO radiators are mounted using the Rabitz wire mesh, which provides additional support to the plaster layer, and the radiators themselves do not have such a high coefficient of thermal expansion.
Since 2014, when the first 3THERMO systems were installed, we have not had any cases of plaster cracks.
- 34. How is it possible that 3THERMO radiators transfer the temperature of water to a height of 1.7 m without any losses? This is physically impossible! Is it a perpetuum mobile?
Heat losses are even desirable, as it is the loss (or amount of released heat) that determines the capacity of the system. If a radiator did not release (lose) any heat absorbed from water, it would not be functional as a heater. However, the radiator core (heat pipe) in a neutral environment (of the same temperature) is able to transfer its set temperature to the very top of the structure (1.7 m) without any problems, as long as water maintains a constant temperature and is supplied to the system on an ongoing basis. It is possible – just like transferring a set temperature to a height of 1.7 m using a water pipe (in an insulated environment). In fact, the distance of 1.7 m is so short that this is even possible in an uninsulated environment, provided that the flow of water is sufficient.If this condition is met, the heat loss is undetectable by basic measuring instruments. The ability of the system to give off heat always depends on the system's surface area. Radiators greatly increase the surface area of an aluminium pipe with an internal diameter of 12 mm, carrying hot water. This is why one running metre of an underfloor heating pipe generates 5-10 W of energy, and with a 3THERMO radiator, you get an output of more than 200 W.
You may, because it is a type of flexible plaster designed to prevent material shrinkage. It is indispensable in wall heating systems based on water pipes. With 3THERMO, this is not necessary. However, if you choose to apply this type of plaster, the covering layer can be very thin, which will contribute to a further reduction in heat losses.
Both underfloor and wall systems are surface heating systems, but they have different heat transmission characteristics. With underfloor heating systems – similarly to regular radiators – the flow of thermal energy is directed towards the cold outer wall. In this case, the wall absorbs not only heat energy from the air, but also humidity. The process dehumidifies the air in the room, and increases the humidity of the outer partitions. Only wall heating is capable of reversing this process. The air never gets dry, which is extremely important for the occupants for health reasons. The best relative humidity level for our comfort and health is between 40 and 60%. Dry walls prevent the growth of mould and fungi which can cause a number of health issues. In addition, a wall heating system shifts the condensation point of water vapour to the outside of the wall, and thus eliminates freezing, and improves the quality of the wall and its thermal insulation capabilities.
An additional difference is the fact that wall heating systems have a lower thermal inertia resulting from lower heating resistance as well as precise prevention of heat losses exactly where they occur. Take, for example, a situation where the underfloor heating must be turned off because of a rapid rise in outside temperature (very warm sunny day, during winter). The floor does not give away accumulated energy so quickly. Also, additional solar energy is absorbed by the outer walls and rooms through glazing (windows etc.). As a result, you have no choice but remove excess thermal energy by opening the windows. Doing so, you throw away heat that cost money to generate in the first place. Walls are different in that additional solar energy is not absorbed, as the wall has its specific heating capacity.
In wall heating systems, the focus is on creating an active thermal barrier and preventing thermal energy accumulated in the building from being transferred to the outside, as the environment (outer walls) has a higher temperature than the air. Consequently, the air does not become colder, because there is no way to lose heat. As there are no energy flows, the temperature distribution is stable and uniform, resulting in a very high level of thermal comfort. Since there is no need to balance out heat losses inside a room, in order to achieve a similar thermal sensation, the air temperature does not need to be maintained at a high level. In fact, it can be lowered by 2-3°C. Claiming that the same applies to underfloor heating systems is, at best, an overstatement! The only thing that can be reduced in underfloor heating (as in any other surface heating system) is the heat supply temperature. That is why surface heating systems are also often referred to as low-temperature heating systems.
The installation of wall heating on inner (partition) walls works just like an underfloor heating system. There is a certain surface that accumulates energy in the mass of concrete (a solid) and releases it to a cooler environment towards a cold outer wall.
Another important factor related to the operation of 3THERMO systems is that the transport of heat energy in the wall takes place without additional electricity to force the upward flow of water. A feature of 3THERMO systems is "dry" distribution of heating energy. This is an additional factor making the system more efficient hydraulically and safer in terms of possible failures due to mechanical damage to the wall.
Surface heating, as the name implies, refers to heating system in which the surface acts as the heater. The main task of surface heating is the supply of thermal energy through a lower energy stream in a more uniform manner, ensuring better distribution of heat. The goal is not to create excessive temperature differences between the air and the heating surface, as they increase convection, causing additional heat losses (the effect of hot air rising toward the ceiling).
A well-known type of a surface heating system is, of course, underfloor heating. The ceiling is another type of surface which can be used for heating purposes. In fact, this was done at a time when buildings did not have adequate thermal insulation because the ceiling, unlike the floor, could provide a higher thermal power. Since people do not have direct contact with the ceiling, it can be warmed up to a higher degree than the floor. However, it quickly turned out that increased thermal radiation coming from such a large surface was poorly tolerated by house residents.
3THERMO is a modern wall heating system which offers a possibility to supply a large amount of energy from a relatively small area, creating a sensation similar to low-temperature heating systems! How is that possible? This is quite simple. The wall, unlike the floor or the ceiling (not to be confused with the flat roof), is an outer partition to which heat losses from EVERY heating system are compensated. With 3THERMO, the process takes place DIRECTLY, balancing out differences already on the partition, not inside the room.
3THERMO is a wall heating system designed specially to maintain the air temperature at a constant preset level, for example 20°C, within the cubic capacity of a room. The goal is that the surrounding environment has no temperature differences, gusts of air, and similar phenomena. The thermally balanced mass of the surrounding air + the elimination of the cold partition phenomenon is experienced as the highest possible thermal comfort. What is more, since there are no warmer air masses accumulating indoors under the ceiling, lower operating costs are guaranteed.
3THERMO can be considered an eco-friendly solution for three main reasons.
- natural material – aluminium, unlike PVC, is a natural element (Al);
- high energy efficiency – every product with improved energy efficiency is classified as eco-friendly. Less energy produced means less pollution in the environment.
- environmentally friendly production process – low energy input, no process wastewater discharges.
These are two different products designed for surface heating. In the case of concealed radiators, it is far easier to fix an aluminium mesh than a PVC mat under the plaster. An additional advantage is 100% protection against damage (concealed radiators do not supply water under the plaster). Also, it is far less likely for concealed radiators to be clogged with chalky deposit (limestone), which might become a problem over time in water capillary mats, considering that the width of the cross-section in PVC pipes is just a few millimetres.
Water capillary mats, on the other hand, work well as a ceiling cooling system. In fact, the ceiling has the best capacity as a surface absorbing thermal energy. Consequently, you might consider a mixed system based on safe concealed radiators in the walls combined with water capillary mats mounted in the ceiling as a cooling system.
Ceiling heating does not make sense, because, unlike underfloor heating systems, it provides unnecessary heat to areas where there is exchange of air for ventilation purposes (chimney losses).
Concealed radiators are not a universal solution. However, it needs to be noted that glazed buildings (even modern ones) have an increased demand for heat. This means that achieving an appropriate heat balance with surface heating (for example with underfloor heating) can be difficult. In contrast, a combined system (floor + wall) has a good chance to fully make up for heat losses.
Concealed radiators will also work well on the inner walls, for example as a complementary solution to trench heaters. An additional advantage is the ability to operate at one (high) parameter.
The wall system produces its heating effect directly on the wall (outer partition), so the entire heating output is focused directly on the partition. Energy is supplied on an ongoing basis, as needed, with a higher available temperature of the medium.
Underfloor heating systems require the accumulation of very well-balanced energy, which is why the system generates loses following surges and drops in outside temperature – precisely because of the lack of possibility for effective control.
- 43. How long does it take to recover additional costs involved in the purchase of a 3THERMO system compared to regular wall-mounted radiators?
3THERMO is a wall heating system which requires higher investment costs, but they will be offset by lower heating bills. We estimate that higher initial costs are recovered after 3 to 5 heating seasons depending on the heat demand of the heated facility.
For example: Let us take a small house, with an area of 120 square metres, equipped with radiators worth PLN 6,000. The heating bill is PLN 4,000/year. With 3THERMO (worth PLN 12,000), heat consumption is reduced by 40%, so the heating bill is PLN 2,400/year. What follows is that in the example above the annual savings are estimated at PLN 1,600.
In this particular case, it takes only 4 years to recover the higher initial costs.
Well, older technologies were not conducive to the development of this form of heating. To place a water pipe on the wall, a thick layer of plaster had to be applied to the surface. The thick plaster covering the heating system (in the outer wall) had a direct impact on increasing losses, as it blocked the flow of heat into the house. Consequently, older wall heating systems, though very convenient and healthy, were not a cost-efficient heating option.
Today, we have 3THERMO. It is a heating system concealed by a layer of plaster that is just 1 cm thick. In addition, it is equipped with an electronic control system. In addition to these advantages, it is the most cost-efficient heating system available commercially. For the first time, it is possible to heat the house using a minimum amount of energy rather than it constant excess. You may describe it as direct injection of thermal energy in buildings, improving energy conversion efficiency and energy performance.
With 3THERMO, there are no specific criteria regarding the quality of thermal insulation of the walls. It works well even in poorly insulated old buildings, and significantly reduces the consumption of heat compared to regular radiators. Owing to better thermal insulation, the building uses less energy and hence requires less heating power, fewer heating devices, and a smaller power supply unit (heat source).
No. In fact, the system is suitable even for heating uninsulated old buildings (without thermal insulation). Tests have shown that energy consumption decreases by an average of 40% in old buildings fitted with a 3THERMO system. The fact that the heating system is embedded into the outer wall does not result in an increased heat consumption. This is a common misconception arising from inadequate understanding of how 3THERMO operates.
Heating can be summed up as BALANCING OUT HEAT LOSSES. And they result from the properties (thermal characteristics) of the building – not the heating system. Every heating system is designed to offset losses, the extent of which is related to the building's thermal permeability. If heat losses are balanced out directly in the partition, the lowest energy consumption can be guaranteed. The process can be compared to the direct injection system in internal combustion engines. There is no need to heat up the wall to enormous temperatures, which would have to increase energy transmission to the outside. It is not a system designed to heat up the walls, but a heating system designed to keep the room temperature constant. The temperature of the wall does not exceed 25°C, and this value is recorded only in the location where the heating system is installed. Compare this to the temperature of the wall warmed up by the wall-mounted radiator.